Review Tools

The Prognosis Methods Group has developed a Research Framework that has been used to set research priorities. In relation to the development of your systematic review methods, the methodological issues include:
a. Definition of prognosis studies
b. Search strategies in prognosis
c. Risk of bias in prognosis studies
d. Data analysis in prognosis studies including assessment of impact of risk factors

Tools are added to this website as they become available. To date, the following methodological tools have been developed to support your review:

QUIPS: The QUIPS tool can be used to assess risk of bias in prognostic factor studies. 

PROBAST: The PROBAST initiative has developed a formal risk of bias tool for risk prediction modeling studies.

CHARMS: The CHARMS checklist is a template and checklist for designing the review, for data extraction and critical appraisal in systematic reviews of risk prediction modeling studies.

TRIPOD: The TRIPOD statement http://www.tripod-statement.org/is a set of evidence-based reporting guidelines for studies developing, validating, or updating (diagnostic and prognostic) risk prediction models. It was developed by an international group of experts comprising of statisticians, methodologists, clinicians and medical journal editors.

SEARCH strategy: A validated search strategy for the retrieval of primary studies for systematic reviews of risk prediction modelling studies was published in 2012.

PROGRESS: A series of five papers, linked below, were published in 2013 and 2014 on the essentials of the different types of prognostic studies, and a recommendation for the registration and sharing of protocols of prognostic studies.

GRADE: The GRADE Working Group have developed recommendations for prognostic evidence and provide a practical and useful approach to determining confidence in estimates of prognosis in broad populations.